A Multi-Site Efficacy Trial of the Class-wide Function-related Intervention Teams “CW-FIT”:

A Research to Practice Agenda for Students with and At Risk for EBD

Juniper Gardens Children’s Project, University of Kansas

Fall 2012-Spring 2016
IES Award#: R324A110282


CW-FIT is effective and efficient tool for educators to teach students how to use appropriate behavior skills and maintain those skills in the classroom.

CW-FIT was designed using 3-tiered Positive Behavior Intervention Support model to:

  • Help students who need more than Tier One supports
  • Implement at the class-wide level
  • Incorporate individualized components
  • Address attention – a common function of problem behavior
  • Implement during “problem” times to teach during the day

CW-FIT increases the quantity and quality of instructional time and activities.

  • Research demonstrates powerful effects consistent across schools and classrooms using CW-FIT
  • CW-FIT strategies support the development and maintenance of positive and effective teacher/student relationships
  • Specific, measurable components of CW-FIT work together easily and efficiently within every classroom
  • CW-FIT data emphasizes the power of specific and frequent praise
  • Results illustrate an increase in on-task behavior to support academic instruction
  • CW-FIT provides data-driven support for teachers and students
  • CW-FIT is a sustainable investment now and for future years

Each Cohort included elementary-level classrooms randomly assigned to either routine school practices, defined as Comparison classroom, or to the CW-FIT intervention. Results illustrate students in CW-FIT classrooms improve their time on task from the fall baseline measure in each cohort and maintain greater gains in on-task behavior over the course of the school-year in relationship to the students in Comparison classrooms within the same schools. 

CW-FIT Peer-Reviewed Research Publications:

Caldarella, P., Larsen, R. A., Williams, L., Wehby, J., Wills, H. P., & Kamps, D. (2017). Monitoring academic and social skills in elementary school: A psychometric evaluation of the Classroom Performance Survey. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 19, 78-89. doi:10.1177/1098300716665081

Caldarella, P., Williams, L., Hansen, B. D., & Wills, H. P. (2015). Managing student behavior in early elementary classrooms with Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams. Early Childhood Education Journal, 43(5), 357-365.

Caldarella, P., Williams, L., Jolstead, K. A., & Wills, H. P. (2017). Managing student behavior in an elementary school music classroom: A study of Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, 35(3), 23-30. doi:10.1177/8755123315626229

Conklin, C., Kamps, D., & Wills, H.  (2017). The effects of Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) on students’ prosocial classroom behaviors. Journal of Behavioral Education,26, 75-100.

Hansen, B. D., Caldarella, P., Williams, L., & Wills, H. P. (2017). Managing Student Behavior in Dual Immersion Classrooms: A Study of Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams. Behavior Modification, Advanced online publication, 1-21. doi:10.1177/0145445517698418

Jolstead, K. A., Caldarella, P., Hansen, B. D., Korth, B. B., Williams, L. & Kamps, D. (2017). Implementing positive behavior support in preschools: An exploratory study of CW-FIT tier 1. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 19, 48-60. doi:10.1177/1098300716653226

Kamps, D., Conklin, C., & Wills, H. (2015). Use of Self-Management with the CW-FIT Group Contingency Program. Education and Treatment of Children, 38(1), 1-32

Kamps, D., Wills, H., Dawson-Bannister, H., Heitzman-Powell, L., Kottwitz, E., Hansen, B., & Fleming, K. (2015). Class-wide function-related intervention teams “CW-FIT” efficacy trial outcomes. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions17(3), 134-145. doi: 1098300714565244

Kamps, D., Wills, H., Heitzman-Powell, Jaylin, J., Szoke, C., Hobohm, T., Culey, A. (2011) Class Wide function-related intervention teams: Effects of group contingency programs in urban classrooms. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 13, 154-167

Lower, A., Young, K. R., Christensen, L., Caldarella, P., Williams, L. & Wills, H. P. (2016). Effects of a tier 3 self-management intervention implemented with and without treatment integrity. Education and Treatment of Children, 39(4), 493–520

Schmidt Naylor, A., Kamps, D., & Wills, H.  (in press).  The Effects of the CW-FIT Group Contingency on Class-wide and Individual Behavior in an Urban First-Grade Classroom. 

Torelli, J. N., Lloyd, B. P., Diekman, C. A., & Wehby, J. H. (accepted). Teaching stimulus control via classwide multiple schedules of reinforcement in public elementary school classrooms. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions.

Trevino-Maack, S. I., Kamps, D., & Wills, H. (2014). A group contingency plus self-management intervention targeting at-risk secondary students’ class-work and active engagement. Remedial and Special Education, 0741932514561865

Weeden, M., Wills, H. P., Kottwitz, E., & Kamps, D. (2016). The Effects of a Class-wide Behavior Intervention for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. Behavioral Disorders42(1), 285-293.

Wills, H. P., Kamps, D., Hansen, B. D., Conklin, C., Bellinger, S., Neaderhiser, J. & Nsubuga, B. (2010). The class-wide function-based intervention team (CW-FIT) program. Preventing School Failure, 54, 164-171.

Wills, H. P., Iwaszuk, W. M., Kamps, D., & Shumate, E. (2014). CW-FIT: Group contingency effects across the day. Education and Treatment of Children37(2), 191-210.

Wills, H., Kamps, D., Fleming, K., & Hansen, B. (2016). Student and Teacher Outcomes of the Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Team Efficacy Trial. Exceptional Children83(1), 58-76.

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