A Multi-Site Efficacy Trial of the Class-wide Function-related Intervention Teams “CW-FIT”:

A Research to Practice Agenda for Students with and At Risk for EBD

Juniper Gardens Children’s Project, University of Kansas

Fall 2012-Spring 2016
IES Award#: R324A110282


CW-FIT is effective and efficient tool for educators to teach students how to use appropriate behavior skills and maintain those skills in the classroom.

CW-FIT was designed using 3-tiered Positive Behavior Intervention Support model to:

  • Help students who need more than Tier One supports
  • Implement at the class-wide level
  • Incorporate individualized components
  • Address attention – a common function of problem behavior
  • Implement during “problem” times to teach during the day

CW-FIT increases the quantity and quality of instructional time and activities.

  • Research demonstrates powerful effects consistent across schools and classrooms using CW-FIT
  • CW-FIT strategies support the development and maintenance of positive and effective teacher/student relationships
  • Specific, measurable components of CW-FIT work together easily and efficiently within every classroom
  • CW-FIT data emphasizes the power of specific and frequent praise
  • Results illustrate an increase in on-task behavior to support academic instruction
  • CW-FIT provides data-driven support for teachers and students
  • CW-FIT is a sustainable investment now and for future years

Each Cohort included elementary-level classrooms randomly assigned to either routine school practices, defined as Comparison classroom, or to the CW-FIT intervention. Results illustrate students in CW-FIT classrooms improve their time on task from the fall baseline measure in each cohort and maintain greater gains in on-task behavior over the course of the school-year in relationship to the students in Comparison classrooms within the same schools. 

CW-FIT Peer-Reviewed Research Publications:

Caldarella, P., Williams, L., Jolstead, K. & Wills, H.P. (under review). Managing student behavior in an elementary school music classroom: A study of Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Teams. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education

Iwaszuk,W. M., Lupo, J., & Wills, H. (under review). Classroom-based intervention at the high school level: A modification of the Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT). Behavior Modification.

Conklin, C., Kamps, D., & Wills, H. (under review). The effects of Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) on students' prosocial classroom behaviors. Journal of Behavioral Education.​

Wills,H.P., Kamps,D. Fleming, K., & Hansen, B.(in press). Student outcomes of the Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Team (CW-FIT) efficacy trial. Exceptional Children.

Weeden, M., Wills, H. P., Kamps, D. & Kottwitz, E. (in press). The effects of the Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Team program on the on-task behavior of children with Emotional Behavioral Disorders. Behavior Disorders.

Caldarella, P., Williams, L., Hansen, B.D., & Wills, H. (2015). Managing student behavior with Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams: An observations study in early elementary classrooms. Early Childhood Education Journal,43(5),357-365. doi: 10.1007/s10643-014-0664-3

Kamps, D., Conklin, C., & Wills, H. (2015). Use of self-management with the CW-FIT group contingency program. Education and Treatment of Children, 38(1), 1-32.

Kamps, D., Wills, H., Bannister, H., Heitzman-Powell, L., Kottwitz, E., Hansen, B., & Fleming, K. (2015). Class-wide function-related intervention teams “cw-fit” efficacy trial outcomes. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 134-145.

Hansen, B. D., & Wills, H. P. (2014). The effects of goal setting, contingent reward, and instruction on writing skills. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 47(1), 171-175.

Trevino-Maack, S. I., Kamps, D., & Wills, H. (2014). A group contingency plus self-management intervention targeting at-risk secondary students’ class-work and active engagement. Remedial and Special Education, 0741932514561865

Wills, H. P., Iwaszuk, W. M., Kamps, D., & Shumate, E. (2014). CW-FIT: Group Contingency Effects Across the Day. Education and Treatment of Children37(2), 191-210

Kamps, D., Wills, H., Heitzman-PowellJaylin, J., Szoke, C., Hobohm, T., Culey, A. (2011) Class Wide function-related intervention teams: Effects of group contingency programs in urban classrooms. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 13, 154-167

Wills, H. P., Kamps, D., Hansen, B. D., Conklin, C., Bellinger, S., Neaderhiser, J. & Nsubuga, B. (2010). The class-wide function-based intervention team (CW-FIT) program. Preventing School Failure, 54, 164-171.

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